Guidelines For Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy And Lactation

Society of evidence follows the reliability of a pregnancy calendars. Redating a reliable method for estimating gestational age and is when. They state the assistance of pregnancy that the due date of. The first step in determining an accurate due date is to identify the first day of the last menstrual period .

If a trans-vaginal approach is to be used, the patient is asked to void just before the study to empty her bladder. This minimizes discomfort and collapses the bladder for better visualization of pelvic organs. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page.


The approximate error in weight prediction methods is approximately 15% and is influenced by patient body habitus, weight range of fetus, technical factors such as machine quality and experience of ultrasonographer. In the third trimester, the femur length is the best single biometric measurement of gestational age. This worrisome attachment to ultrasound scan dating is a challenge to the prevention of prolonged pregnancy and its complications in our environment. Predictors of this attitude in our study were low educational status, low social class, and poor knowledge of the limitations of late pregnancy ultrasound scan dating. Antenatal health education should discourage self-referral for ultrasound scanning and emphasize the limitations of late ultrasound scan dating as well as the perinatal effects of prolonged pregnancy.

The placenta should be further inspected for masses or retroplacental hemorrhage, which will appear as heterogenous or anechoic areas, respectively. Its size in both longitudinal and transverse axes should be determined. Any abnormal finding should be further studied by applying both Color Doppler and Power Doppler modes. The placenta can be identified by tracing the endometrium until an isoechoic structure with increased vascularity on color Doppler. The location of the placenta should be described as anterior or posterior. The presence of placenta previa should be excluded by measuring the distance from the caudal edge of the placenta to the inner cervical os.

Fetal Chest

The next step in the assessment process is the physical examination, which detects any physical problems that may affect the pregnancy outcome. The initial physical examination provides the baseline for evaluating changes during future visits. Nurses can utilize the study results to educate their pregnant clients about using insulin versus oral hypoglycemic medications for better glucose control, which equates into fewer neonatal complications. Providing instruction on how to inject insulin is essential to increase acceptance of injections versus oral taking oral medications.


A Cochrane review concluded that ultrasonography can reduce the need for week induction and lead to earlier date of multiple criteria 6. Because weeks to change the EDD significantly affect pregnancy management, their ultrasounds should could discussed with patients and recorded in the medical record. Measurements of the CRL are more accurate the earlier in the different trimester that pdf is performed 11, 15? Dating changes for smaller discrepancies are appropriate based on how early in the different trimester the ultrasound examination was performed and clinical assessment of the match of the LMP date Table 1. Another examination category is the limited examination . Limited ultrasound examinations, also performed by a trained sonographer, are used to obtain a specific piece of information about the pregnancy.

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Typically, this history begins with a description of the woman’s menstrual cycle, including her age at menarche, number of days in her cycle, typical flow characteristics, and any discomfort experienced. The use of contraception is also important, including when the woman last used it. All these factors pose risks to pregnancy and could be addressed with early interventions if the woman seeks preconception health care. Specific recognized risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes that fall into one or more of these categories are listed in Box 12.2.

The distance from the uterine fundus to the pubic symphysis defines fundal height measurement. Measurement should be performed using a non-elastic tape measure, and the patient should have an empty bladder. The most common use for fundal height measurement is recording the trend of this measurement to screen for appropriate fetal growth throughout gestation. The usefulness of fundal height measurement in any circumstance has varied widely throughout the literature but can be helpful in resource-poor areas for an estimation of gestational age. The assumption with fundal height measurement is that the measurement in centimeters from uterine fundus to pubic symphysis is equal to the patient’s gestational age. Uterine fibroids, amniotic fluid abnormalities, increased maternal body mass index , and fetal growth abnormalities are some examples of circumstances that can alter the accuracy of fundal height measurement.

If you have a blood test at your doctor’s office, you can get results faster. The test also measures the amount of hCG in the blood, but is more sensitive than a home urine test. A blood test can detect pregnancy six to eight days after ovulation. A home urine test measures the amount of hCG present in the body.

The joints of his/her hands and legs can flex; the nipples and hair follicles are developing. Taste buds are beginning to form on the tongue, as well as primary tooth buds in the gums. At 1 week pregnant, you’re actually not pregnant yet. As your pregnancy is calculated from the first day of your last menstruation, your baby does not yet exist, and your body is preparing for the ovulation during which you’ll get pregnant.

Starting at 7 weeks, the embryo has grown to the point that recognizable features, such as a cephalic pole, can be seen. As shown in Figure 9-6 , a prominent midline brain vesicle can be seen at this time. The cerebral falx is visible at 9 weeks, and the appearance and disappearance of physiologic gut herniation are noted between 8 and 11 weeks ( Fig. 9-16 ). In the course of this physiologic process, the bowel is seen to lie within the umbilical cord and does not float freely.

Redating a pregnancy may occur when there is a discrepancy between the estimated due date calculated by the last menstrual period and that by ultrasound. Care should be taken when redating a pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, as there may be other reasons for a fetus to be small for gestational age (e.g. intrauterine growth restriction). Patients with a negative screening test result should be made aware that this substantially decreases their risk of the targeted aneuploidy but does not ensure that the fetus is unaffected. The potential for a fetus to be affected by genetic disorders that are not evaluated by the screening or diagnostic test should also be reviewed.